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FTTH Council Report Lists Barriers to UK Copper Telecoms Switch-Off

Wednesday, March 13th, 2019 (3:15 pm) - Score 3,361

The FTTH Council Europe has today published a new report that examines what progress has been made across the UK and Europe on the transition from older copper broadband networks to new “full fibre” (FTTH / FTTP) infrastructure. Suffice to say that some big barriers remain in the UK.

Pure fibre optic networks typically run their optical fibre cables all the way to your doorstep, which use laser light to deliver significantly faster speeds (e.g. multi-Gigabit) and a much more reliable service. At present a lot of countries are busy deploying FTTP networks like this and at some point that means the older, slower and less reliable copper lines will need to be switched off (too costly to keep both running side-by-side).

The new study from WIK analyses the different stages of copper switch-off in 10 EU Member States and identifies benefits as well as enablers, incentives, challenges and barriers to switching from copper to fibre networks. Overall it notes that there has only been “limited progress” toward copper switch-off in Europe thus far, which isn’t much of a surprise since many countries are still in the process of deploying FTTP.

For example, in the United Kingdom only around 6%+ of premises can access an FTTP network today (Ofcom) and the Government doesn’t expect to achieve nationwide coverage until 2033 (currently just an aspiration). By comparison a number of other EU states have been busy deploying the technology, at scale, for many years and are thus already approaching the finish line (here).

The report correctly notes that the UK doesn’t yet have a solid plan for switching off copper networks, although like many other countries it is making progress toward transitioning consumers to all-IP (e.g. VoIP) networks and disabling old analogue phone (voice) services by 2025 (here). This is often considered an important prerequisite to the eventual copper switch-off.

Benefits of Copper Switch-Off (WIK Report)

Reliability: fibre is 70%-80% more reliable than copper resulting is lower fault rates;

Energy efficiency: copper switch results in 40-60% energy savings due to the lower power consumption of fibre;

Cost efficiency: 40-60% lower maintenance costs;

Better deal for consumers: surveyed consumers were more satisfied with fibre (82% happy vs 50% on DSL), quoted higher bandwidth, wider range of services and better value for money as key benefits.

Better deal for investors: evidence suggests that clarity on copper switch off can improve the business case for fibre.

The main factor delaying migration to FTTP in several countries, according to WIK, is the continued reliance by incumbent operators on copper rather than investing in or accessing FTTP networks. But this is an over simplification and the challenges often tend to be a lot deeper and more complicated.

Openreach have previously indicated that they’d like the ability to migrate customers from copper to FTTP as the new network is deployed, which would cut their upkeep costs for the old legacy network and thus turn “full fibre” into a much more attractive investment. Consumers would obviously benefit from the significantly faster and more reliable broadband.

As usual there are some big obstacles in terms of both regulation and competition. For example, FTTP is a more expensive service and not all customers will be happy about being forced to pay extra for something that they might not want. A lot of modern regulation is also based around copper infrastructure and will need to be overhauled.

Several ISPs have also invested heavily in unbundled copper lines (e.g. Sky Broadband, TalkTalk, Vodafone) and might be reluctant to let go, which is further complicated by the fact that some of those same providers have plans to build their own rival FTTP networks. Competitive interests and regulatory complexity are tricky areas to unpick, leaving plenty of scope for the odd legal challenge.

Copper Switch-Off – Overview of Barriers (WIK Report)

* The leading country for copper switch-off to FTTH (Estonia with 70% of copper exchanges closed in 2018 and plans to remove copper access for 60% of broadband subscribers by 2020) benefits from incumbent FTTH deployment, absence of regulatory barriers and limited wholesale copper reliance.

* The gradual pace of incumbent FTTH deployment and reliance on copper upgrade technologies is a core factor delaying switch-off in UK, DE and IT.

* Strict conditions or a lack of precise guidance on conditions for exchange closure may be hampering switch-off in PT and FR. No rules have yet been established in the UK.

* The reluctance of customers may be hampering switch-off in FR, PL. This was managed in EE through “plug and play” equipment and support for legacy equipment.

* Transitioning of critical legacy equipment continues to be a concern in SE, PL, UK, NL.

* Copper access obligations such as Wholesale Line Rental (WLR) persist in the UK.

* Line powering obligations were a barrier to switch-off in some countries, but this issue has now been addressed in all the countries studied.

copper telecoms switch off barriers 2019

Naturally those who aren’t reached by FTTP in the UK until 2033 will still need to use that copper network (e.g. FTTC, G.fast broadband), which means a complete switch-off would be unlikely to happen until after FTTP has reached all corners of the country. Lest we forget the tedious question of Virgin Media’s hybrid fibre coax network, which doesn’t strictly need to be switched-off as it will soon support Gigabit speeds via DOCSIS 3.1.

The exception might be KCOM in Hull, which dominates the local market and will have achieved almost total FTTP coverage by March 2019. In other words, they have less competition to worry about and may be able to switch-off their copper lines far sooner than Openreach (they aim to be the first in the UK to do it).

Ronan Kelly, President of the FTTH Council Europe, said:

“This study about copper switch-off is of tremendous importance for the FTTH Council Europe. The telecom market is in a transitional phase, it is moving from an old copper-based infrastructure to new fibre-based networks. There is a technology change and all eyes are on 5G but we should not forget that fibre is the foundation of all technologies for connectivity. Policy is lagging behind the market developments, and it is important that it catches up.”

The UK Government, Ofcom and Openreach have already begun discussing the challenge of transitioning away from copper networks and on to fibre optic lines. Inevitably this will be a gradual process and nobody has yet been so bold as to set a solid time-scale, although we suspect there will still be copper lines around even in 2033 and probably for a few years after that date.

Hopefully by the end of 2019, once various industry consultations have run their course, then we might have a better idea of how this process will be handled in the UK.

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By Mark Jackson
Mark is a professional technology writer, IT consultant and computer engineer from Dorset (England), he also founded ISPreview in 1999 and enjoys analysing the latest telecoms and broadband developments. Find me on Twitter, , Facebook and Linkedin.
Leave a Comment
28 Responses
  1. CarlT says:

    The only nation with copper access obligations being an obstacle. Thanks, Ofcom!

    1. AndyH says:

      John Henry contractors have been working for City Fibre to deploy FTTP in parts of Milton Keynes.

      They told me that a number of residents asked them to remove the redundant Openreach phone cable when they pulled through the new fibre, but they were explicitly told by Openreach that they are not allowed to do this because of OFCOM’s rules. The only redundant cable they were allowed to remove was the old NTL/Virgin Media coax cable.

      Crazy really – houses have 2 FTTP connections and they are still not allowed to remove the redundant copper network…

  2. G.Fast Useless says:

    And sadly today Openreach has imstalled useless G.Fast at my street cabinet which mean I don’t want it. I only interesting in FTTP.

    Photo of g.fast found here: https://ibb.co/r4Qcj4Z

    1. TheFacts says:

      Why and why?

    2. AndyH says:

      Hello Max.

    3. GNewton says:

      @TheFacts: Your question was answered may times in recent months. So why do you post your same lame questions here?

    4. TheFacts says:

      Why would someone not be interested in GFast if it gives them faster speeds?

    5. G.Fast Useless says:

      TheFacts – reason I don’t want G.Fast because 250m away from the street cabinet isn’t worth the money in my view. I might be end up with 140/25 from g.fast for this expensive price. FTTP are lots cheaper than G.Fast as it a proper real full fibre as G.Fast isn’t 100% fibre. So, I gonna to stay with FTTC 80/20 with reasonable price for now. Don’t think G.Fast pricing will be ever be cheaper for time being.

    6. G.Fast Useless says:

      AndyH – Hi again and where the hell have you been lately? Have you been hidden away lately?

    7. AndyH says:

      @ Max

      Too busy with fibre overload.

  3. Brian says:

    In around 10% of UK no need to worry about LLU, as there is none present

    1. TheFacts says:

      Source please.

    2. Brian says:

      Just put “Market A telephone exchange” in the search engine of your choice.

    3. GNewton says:

      @TheFacts: What is your point here? Do you have anything constructive to say here on this forum? Or are you just here to tell off users when they got wrong figures?

      It would take you only a minute to look up the answer for yourself on Google:

      “At present (May 2018) about 90% of the UK is Market B (the “Low Cost Area“), which means you have more choice of primary operators, less regulation and are probably on a modern exchange with more affordable capacity. By comparison Market A (9.5% of UK premises) tends to reflect the most rural or digitally isolated areas, which may suffer due to a lack of competition”

      See https://www.ispreview.co.uk/index.php/2018/05/isp-plusnet-expand-uk-low-cost-areas-to-more-broadband-users.html

      See also https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/112475/wla-statement-vol-1.pdf for Ofcom’s Wholesale Local Access Market Review.

    4. AndyH says:


      In the report you linked to:

      “Market B accounts for over 98% and Market A around 1% of UK premises. The remainder of UK premises (just under 1%)
      are in the Hull Area.”

    5. CarlT says:

      @GNewton Do you have some kind of crush on TheFacts?

      I mean I know you need to get more familiar with facts as a concept but there’s no need to carry it over.

      If they turned you down at some point it would explain why your contribution here fixates on taking pot shots at them.

      It’ll be fine.

  4. Jerry says:

    To be honest I would pay more for fibre but sadly isn’t available in my area and probably won’t be but it is just disgustingly shocking that countries with far less wealth than that of the UK are light-years ahead in terms of infrastructure than we are.

    1. Badem says:

      To be fair, in York FTTP is the same price/cheaper than traditional Hybrid Copper/Fibre

      Some ISPs in other area are charging much more to recover the installation costs quicker and then turn a much higher ARPU on FTTC since it no longer needs all that expensive line rentals etc to Openreach for the copper network.

  5. Meadmodj says:

    “Voluntary migration by customers from copper to fibre is influenced by the relative pricing of the products in relation to
    their perceived value”. People will not want to migrate if they perceive that moving to Full Fibre is more expensive or they are paying for capacity that they will never use. People are also wedded to their SkyQ/TIVO remote and may not be able to get it let alone that old radio active Trimphone.

    Interesting in the report is the following:
    – Installation of FTTH incumbent and/or willingness by incumbent to use competing FTTH infrastructure
    – Availability of FTTH access for access seekers and a willingness to migrate, or own FTTH (co-)investment

    This appears to infer a preference for single infrastructure model whereas Ofcom in the UK are supporting competitive overbuild and exclusivity arrangements with ISPs.

    So my provoking comment here is that if the objective is FTTP to every house why aren’t Ofcom insisting on a single infrastructure model even to the extent that Altnets use OR duct and BT are able to provide VoBB on Altnets i.e open access to ISPs and VoBB providers?.

    Money goes further, 100% adoption (exceptions noted), 100% utilisation and quicker progress. Oh, no money for the investors in that.

  6. Gordon Freeman says:

    Copper? We have aluminium wire in our village. Slower and less reliable. This was due to a 1960s South African strike according to one BT engineer. Superfarce more like?!

  7. Michael V says:

    While Vodafone may still maintain DSL connections they now only sell Fibre. The cost is about £22. Their old DSL offering was about £17 + line rental, totalling more than their basic fibre package.
    More ISPs need to adopt a cheaper pricing model for fibre & stop selling DSL broadband. That’s one of the ways we’re going to see a better increase of fibre customers which will make it easier to decommission copper lines eventually. Someone just needs to set a date & get on with it. I really wouldn’t mind a little bit of disruption with the road dug up if it means future proofing infrastructure.

    1. Brian says:

      There needs to be multiple providers of ADSL based products to maintain competition and keep prices down for the hundreds of thousands that do not have access to fibre or fibre hybrid products

  8. dave says:

    OR are a absolute waste of time they rather bodge the network instead of making it better spend some money. aluminium and copper lines are cheap and nasty Terrible speeds but they think its acceptable. Absolute waste of time this crappy BT openreach network its beyond the times .

    1. AndyH says:

      Nice rant.

      Openreach want to turn off their copper network where FTTP is deployed. OFCOM will not allow them to do this, so perhaps you should be venting your frustration at OFCOM instead.

  9. Anon says:

    Lucky for me, I get to pay extortionate prices for a crappy copper cable until FTTP becomes available 14 years from now.

  10. YH L says:

    Is there any action people could take to get ISP to swap copper at my area? 🙁

  11. Luke Dawn says:


    Thanks for sharing info.

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